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Next: Histogram Specification Up: contrast_transform Previous: Gray level mapping

Histogram Equalization

To transform the gray levels of the image so that the histogram of the resulting image is equalized to become a constant:

\begin{displaymath}h[i]= \mbox{constant},\;\;\;\;\;\;0\le i<L \end{displaymath}

The purposes:

We first assume the pixel values are continuous in the range of $0<x<1$, and the mapping function $y=f(x)$ maps $x$ to $y$ also in the same range. We also assume all pixels within the gray scale interval $dx$ of the input image are mapped to the corresponding range $dy$ of the output image. As the number of pixels being mapped remains unchanged, we have

\begin{displaymath}p(y)dy=p(x)dx \end{displaymath}


For the histogram of the output image to be equalized, it needs to be constant 1, i.e., $p(y)=1$, so that $\int_0^1 p(y)\;dy=\int_0^1 dy=1$. We therefore have:

\begin{displaymath}dy=p(x)dx,\;\;\;\mbox{or}\;\;\;\frac{dy}{dx}=p(x) \end{displaymath}

Integrating both sides, we get the mapping function $y=f(x)$ for the histogram equalization:

\begin{displaymath}y=f(x)=\int_0^x p(u) du=P(x)-P(0)=P(x) \end{displaymath}

where $P(x)$ is the cumulative distribution of the gray levels of the input image:

\begin{displaymath}P(x)=\int_0^x p(u) du, \;\;\;\;\;P(0)=0,\;\;\;\;\;\;P(1)=1 \end{displaymath}

This histogram equalization mapping can be intuitively interpreted by the following:


For discrete gray levels, the gray level of the input $x$ takes one of the $L$ discrete values: $0\le x < L$, and the continuous mapping function becomes discrete:

y'[j]=H_x[j]\stackrel{\triangle}{=}\sum_{i=0}^j h_x[i]

where $h_x[i]$ and $H_x[j]$ are respectively the density and cumulative histogram of the input image $x$:

h_x[i]=\frac{n_i}{\sum_{i=0}^{L-1} n_i}=\frac{n_i}{N},\;\;\;\;\;\;\;
\sum_{i=0}^{L-1} h_x[i]=1

and $n_i$ is the number of pixels with gray level $i$, and $N$ is the total number of pixels.

The resulting function $y'$ in the range $0 \le y' \le 1$ needs to be converted to the gray levels $0 \le y <L$ by either of the two ways:

  1. \begin{displaymath}y_1=\lfloor (L-1)\;y' +0.5 \rfloor \end{displaymath}

  2. \begin{displaymath}y_2=\lfloor (L-1) \;\frac{y'-y'_{min}}{1-y'_{min}}+0.5 \rfloor \end{displaymath}

where $\lfloor w \rfloor$ is the floor of a real number $w$ (the largest integer smaller than $w$), and adding $0.5$ is for proper rounding. Note that both conversions map $y'_{max}=1$ to the highest gray level $L-1$, the second conversion also maps $y'_{min}$ to 0 to stretch the gray levels of the output image to occupy the entire dynamic range $0 \le y <L$; i.e., the second method does gray scale stretch as well as histogram equalization.


Assume the images have $N=64 \times 64=4096$ pixels in $L=8$ gray levels. The following table shows the equalization process corresponding to the two conversion methods above:

$x_i=i$ $n_i$ $h[i]=n_i/N$ $y'=H[i]$ $y_1$ $h_1$ $H_1$ $y_2$ $h_2$ $H_2$
0 790 0.19 0.19 1 0.19 0.19 0 0.19 0.19
1 1023 0.25 0.44 3 0.25 0.44 2 0.25 0.44
2 850 0.21 0.65 5 0.21 0.65 4 0.21 0.65
3 656 0.16 0.81 6     5 0.16 0.81
4 329 0.08 0.89 6 0.24 0.89 6 0.08 0.89
5 245 0.06 0.95 7     7    
6 122 0.03 0.98 7     7    
7 81 0.02 1.00 7 0.11 1.00 7 0.11 1.00


In the following example, the histogram of a given image is equalized. Although the resulting histogram may not look constant, but the cumulative histogram is a exact linear ramp indicating that the density histogram is indeed equalized. The density histogram is not guaranteed to be a constant because the pixels of the same gray level cannot be separated to satisfy a constant distribution.



Programming issues:



next up previous
Next: Histogram Specification Up: contrast_transform Previous: Gray level mapping
Ruye Wang 2013-10-11