So far all circuits we have discussed are composed of passive components (resistors, capacitors and inductors) driven by current and voltage sources. In the future we will be considering active components such as bipolar junction transistors (BJT) and field-effect transistors (FET), operational amplifiers (Op-Amps), as well as more sophisticated circuits such as voltage amplification circuits. These active components (as simple as single transistors and as complicated as some Op-Amps) can be considered as controlled current or voltage sources that generate current or voltage as a function (typically linear) of the input current or voltage.
For the purpose of describing the overall function and performance of such components and circuits (instead of its internal structure and implementation), a general model can be used with the following three parameters:
The alternative definitions of these voltage, current, and power gains may be used, depending on the specific applications.
The voltage amplifier can be used as a component (a building block) in a larger circuit, such as two-port network with input port between terminals A and B and output port between terminals C and D. This network can be in turn described in terms of the three parameters, the open-circuit voltage gain, the input resistance and output resistance, as shown below:
Find , , and of this two-port network containing and as well as the amplifier modeled by , and .
Find the parameters , and of the two-port network with the voltage amplifier embedded.
We first find the short-circuit current
at the output port. Assume a voltage source with internal resistance
is applied to the input port while the output port is short-circuited.
Applying KVL to the two loops of the circuit, we get:
Example 5: (Homework)
A voltage amplifier, denoted by the inner box (solid line) with three internal parameters , and , is used as a component in a two-port network, denoted by the outer box (dashed line). Its open-circuit output voltage is . Find the following three parameters of the two-port network.
Note that all output between C and D of the output port is fed back to the input port between A and B: or , i.e., it is a negative feedback.
Then simplify the three results above by making reasonable approximations based on the assumptions that , .
Example 6: (Homework)
Two amplifiers with parameters , , and , , , respectively, can be connected in cascade as shown in the figure. Given a voltage source in series with an internal resistance , find the output voltage. To maximize the output , how would you change the values of the six parameters?
Find the power gain of the system.
Example 7: (Homework)
The input and output resistances and , as well as the voltage gain of a two-port network can be obtained experimentally. First, connect an ideal voltage source (a new battery with very low internal resistance) in series with a resistor , and then connect load of two different resistances to the output port. Now the three parameters can be derived from the known values of , and the two measurements of the load voltage , corresponding to the two resistance values used.
Assume , , and the input voltage is measured to be ; also, assume the two different load resistors used are and respectively, with the two corresponding output voltage and . Find , and .